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spirit    : [sp'ɪrət] [sp'ɪrɪt]
Spirit \Spir"it\, n. [OF. espirit, esperit, F. esprit, L.
spiritus, from spirare to breathe, to blow. Cf. {Conspire},
{Expire}, {Esprit}, {Sprite}.]
1. Air set in motion by breathing; breath; hence, sometimes,
life itself. [Obs.] "All of spirit would deprive."
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The mild air, with season moderate,
Gently attempered, and disposed eo well,
That still it breathed foorth sweet spirit.
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2. A rough breathing; an aspirate, as the letter h; also, a
mark to denote aspiration; a breathing. [Obs.]
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Be it a letter or spirit, we have great use for it.
--B. Jonson.
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3. Life, or living substance, considered independently of
corporeal existence; an intelligence conceived of apart
from any physical organization or embodiment; vital
essence, force, or energy, as distinct from matter.
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4. The intelligent, immaterial and immortal part of man; the
soul, in distinction from the body in which it resides;
the agent or subject of vital and spiritual functions,
whether spiritual or material.
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There is a spirit in man; and the inspiration of the
Almighty giveth them understanding. --Job xxxii.
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As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith
without works is dead also. --James ii.
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Spirit is a substance wherein thinking, knowing,
doubting, and a power of moving, do subsist.
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5. Specifically, a disembodied soul; the human soul after it
has left the body.
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Then shall the dust return to the earth as it was,
and the spirit shall return unto God who gave it.
--Eccl. xii.
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Ye gentle spirits far away,
With whom we shared the cup of grace. --Keble.
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6. Any supernatural being, good or bad; an apparition; a
specter; a ghost; also, sometimes, a sprite,; a fairy; an
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Whilst young, preserve his tender mind from all
impressions of spirits and goblins in the dark.
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7. Energy, vivacity, ardor, enthusiasm, courage, etc.
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"Write it then, quickly," replied Bede; and
summoning all his spirits together, like the last
blaze of a candle going out, he indited it, and
expired. --Fuller.
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8. One who is vivacious or lively; one who evinces great
activity or peculiar characteristics of mind or temper;
as, a ruling spirit; a schismatic spirit.
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Such spirits as he desired to please, such would I
choose for my judges. --Dryden.
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9. Temper or disposition of mind; mental condition or
disposition; intellectual or moral state; -- often in the
plural; as, to be cheerful, or in good spirits; to be
downhearted, or in bad spirits.
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God has . . . made a spirit of building succeed a
spirit of pulling down. --South.
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A perfect judge will read each work of wit
With the same spirit that its author writ. --Pope.
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10. Intent; real meaning; -- opposed to the letter, or to
formal statement; also, characteristic quality,
especially such as is derived from the individual genius
or the personal character; as, the spirit of an
enterprise, of a document, or the like.
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11. Tenuous, volatile, airy, or vapory substance, possessed
of active qualities.
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All bodies have spirits . . . within them. --Bacon.
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12. Any liquid produced by distillation; especially, alcohol,
the spirits, or spirit, of wine (it having been first
distilled from wine): -- often in the plural.
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13. pl. Rum, whisky, brandy, gin, and other distilled liquors
having much alcohol, in distinction from wine and malt
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14. (Med.) A solution in alcohol of a volatile principle. Cf.
{Tincture}. --U. S. Disp.
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15. (Alchemy) Any one of the four substances, sulphur, sal
ammoniac, quicksilver, or arsenic (or, according to some,
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The four spirits and the bodies seven. --Chaucer.
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16. (Dyeing) Stannic chloride. See under {Stannic}.
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Note: Spirit is sometimes joined with other words, forming
compounds, generally of obvious signification; as,
spirit-moving, spirit-searching, spirit-stirring, etc.
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{Astral spirits}, {Familiar spirits}, etc. See under
{Astral}, {Familiar}, etc.

{Animal spirits}.
(a) (Physiol.) The fluid which at one time was supposed
to circulate through the nerves and was regarded as
the agent of sensation and motion; -- called also the
{nervous fluid}, or {nervous principle}.
(b) Physical health and energy; frolicsomeness;

{Ardent spirits}, strong alcoholic liquors, as brandy, rum,
whisky, etc., obtained by distillation.

{Holy Spirit}, or {The Spirit} (Theol.), the Spirit of God,
or the third person of the Trinity; the Holy Ghost. The
spirit also signifies the human spirit as influenced or
animated by the Divine Spirit.

{Proof spirit}. (Chem.) See under {Proof}.

{Rectified spirit} (Chem.), spirit rendered purer or more
concentrated by redistillation, so as to increase the
percentage of absolute alcohol.

{Spirit butterfly} (Zool.), any one of numerous species of
delicate butterflies of tropical America belonging to the
genus {Ithomia}. The wings are gauzy and nearly destitute
of scales.

{Spirit duck}. (Zool.)
(a) The buffle-headed duck.
(b) The golden-eye.

{Spirit lamp} (Art), a lamp in which alcohol or methylated
spirit is burned.

{Spirit level}. See under {Level}.

{Spirit of hartshorn}. (Old Chem.) See under {Hartshorn}.

{Spirit of Mindererus} (Med.), an aqueous solution of acetate
of ammonium; -- named after R. Minderer, physician of

{Spirit of nitrous ether} (Med. Chem.), a pale yellow liquid,
of a sweetish taste and a pleasant ethereal odor. It is
obtained by the distillation of alcohol with nitric and
sulphuric acids, and consists essentially of ethyl nitrite
with a little acetic aldehyde. It is used as a
diaphoretic, diuretic, antispasmodic, etc. Called also
{sweet spirit of niter}.

{Spirit of salt} (Chem.), hydrochloric acid; -- so called
because obtained from salt and sulphuric acid. [Obs.]

{Spirit of sense}, the utmost refinement of sensation. [Obs.]

{Spirits of turpentine}, or {Spirit of turpentine} (Chem.),
rectified oil of turpentine, a transparent, colorless,
volatile, and very inflammable liquid, distilled from the
turpentine of the various species of pine; camphine. It is
commonly used to remove paint from surfaces, or to dissole
oil-based paint. See {Camphine}.

{Spirit of vitriol} (Chem.), sulphuric acid; -- so called
because formerly obtained by the distillation of green
vitriol. [Obs.]

{Spirit of vitriolic ether} (Chem.) ethyl ether; -- often but
incorrectly called {sulphuric ether}. See {Ether}. [Obs.]

{Spirits of wine}, or {Spirit of wine} (Chem.), alcohol; --
so called because formerly obtained by the distillation of

{Spirit rapper}, one who practices spirit rapping; a "medium"
so called.

{Spirit rapping}, an alleged form of communication with the
spirits of the dead by raps. See {Spiritualism}, 3.

{Sweet spirit of niter}. See {Spirit of nitrous ether},
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Syn: Life; ardor; energy; fire; courage; animatioon;
cheerfulness; vivacity; enterprise.
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Spirit \Spir"it\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Spirited}; p. pr. & vb.
n. {Spiriting}.]
1. To animate with vigor; to excite; to encourage; to
inspirit; as, civil dissensions often spirit the ambition
of private men; -- sometimes followed by up.
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Many officers and private men spirit up and assist
those obstinate people to continue in their
rebellion. --Swift.
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2. To convey rapidly and secretly, or mysteriously, as if by
the agency of a spirit; to kidnap; -- often with away, or
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The ministry had him spirited away, and carried
abroad as a dangerous person. --Arbuthnot &
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I felt as if I had been spirited into some castle of
antiquity. --Willis.
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{Spiriting away} (Law), causing to leave; the offense of
inducing a witness to leave a jurisdiction so as to evade
process requiring attendance at trial.
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n 1: the vital principle or animating force within living things
2: the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect
that it has on people; "the feel of the city excited him"; "a
clergyman improved the tone of the meeting"; "it had the
smell of treason" [synonym: {spirit}, {tone}, {feel}, {feeling},
{flavor}, {flavour}, {look}, {smell}]
3: a fundamental emotional and activating principle determining
one's character
4: any incorporeal supernatural being that can become visible
(or audible) to human beings [synonym: {spirit}, {disembodied
5: the state of a person's emotions (especially with regard to
pleasure or dejection); "his emotional state depended on her
opinion"; "he was in good spirits"; "his spirit rose" [synonym:
{emotional state}, {spirit}]
6: the intended meaning of a communication [synonym: {intent},
{purport}, {spirit}]
7: animation and energy in action or expression; "it was a heavy
play and the actors tried in vain to give life to it" [synonym:
{liveliness}, {life}, {spirit}, {sprightliness}]
8: an inclination or tendency of a certain kind; "he had a
change of heart" [synonym: {heart}, {spirit}]
v 1: infuse with spirit; "The company spirited him up" [synonym:
{spirit}, {spirit up}, {inspirit}]

572 Moby Thesaurus words for "spirit":
Geist, Masan, Muse, abandon, abduce, abduct, activity,
adventuresomeness, adventurousness, affective meaning, afflatus,
aggression, aggressiveness, aim, air, airy nothing, alacrity,
alcohol, ambitiousness, anima, anima humana, animal spirits,
animate, animating force, animation, animus, anxiety, anxiousness,
apparition, appearance, appetite, aqua vitae, ardency, ardor,
astral, astral body, astral spirit, atman, atmosphere, attitude,
atua, aura, avidity, avidness, axiom, ba, backbone, banshee,
baring, bathmism, beating heart, being, bent, biological clock,
biorhythm, blood, body-build, bones, booze, bosom, bottom, brand,
bravery, breast, breath, breath of life, breathless impatience,
breeziness, brio, briskness, bubble, bubbliness, buddhi,
capersomeness, carry away, carry off, cast, center, center of life,
character, characteristic, characteristics, cheer,
cheerful readiness, chutzpah, climate, coloring, coltishness,
commitment, committedness, complexion, composition, concentrate,
concentration, connotation, consciousness, consequence,
constituents, constitution, control, core, courage, crasis,
creative thought, creativity, crimp, cue, daemon, daimonion,
daring, dash, dauntlessness, decoction, dedication, demon,
denotation, departed spirit, desire, devotedness, devotion,
devoutness, dharma, diathesis, disembodied spirit, disposition,
distillate, distillation, divine afflatus, divine breath,
divine spark, drift, drink, drive, duppy, dybbuk, dynamism,
eagerness, earnestness, ebullience, ecstasy, effect, effervescence,
ego, eidolon, elan, elan vital, elixir, embue, energy, enliven,
enterprise, enterprisingness, enthusiasm, esoteric reality, esprit,
esprit de corps, essence, essence of life, essential, ether, ethos,
evil spirits, excitement, exhilarate, extension, extract,
extraction, exuberance, fabric, faith, faithfulness, feel, feeling,
feelings, fervency, fervidness, fervor, fiber, fidelity, fire,
fire of genius, firewater, flower, focus, force, force of life,
forcefulness, form, forwardness, frame, frame of mind, friskiness,
frolicsomeness, fundamental, furor, fury, gaiety, gameness,
gamesomeness, gayness, genius, get-up-and-get, get-up-and-go,
getup, ghost, gimp, ginger, gist, glow, go, go-ahead, go-getting,
go-to-itiveness, grain, grammatical meaning, grateful dead,
gravamen, grit, grog, gross body, growth force, guide, gumption,
gust, gusto, guts, gutsiness, guttiness, habit, hant, haunt, heart,
heart of hearts, heart of oak, heartbeat, heartblood, heartiness,
heartstrings, heat, heatedness, hold for ransom, hooch, hue, humor,
humors, hustle, hypostasis, idea, idolum, ilk, illusion, imbue,
immateriality, impact, impassionedness, impatience, impetuosity,
impetus, implication, import, impress, impulse, impulse of life,
inclination, incorporeal, incorporeal being, incorporeity, infect,
inform, infuse, infusion, initiative, inject, inmost heart,
inmost soul, inner essence, inner man, inner nature,
innermost being, inoculate, inside, inspiration, inspire, inspirit,
inspiriting force, intelligence, intension, intensity, intent,
intention, intentness, intestinal fortitude, jiva, jivatma,
joie de vivre, juice, kama, keen desire, keenness, kernel, khu,
kidnap, kind, larva, lemures, lexical meaning, life, life breath,
life cycle, life essence, life force, life principle, life process,
lifeblood, linga sharira, liquor, literal meaning, liveliness,
living force, loyalty, lustiness, makeup, manas, manes, manfulness,
manliness, marrow, material, materialization, matter, meaning,
meat, medium, mediumism, message, mettle, mettlesomeness, might,
milieu, mind, mist, mold, mood, morale, motivation, moxie, nature,
necromancy, nephesh, nerve, nerve center, note, notion, nub,
nucleus, nuts and bolts, oni, oomph, overtone, panache, passion,
passionateness, passions, pep, pepper, peppiness, perkiness,
persona, pertinence, pertness, phantasm, phantasma, phantom,
physical body, physique, piquancy, piss and vinegar, pith, pizzazz,
playfulness, pluck, pluckiness, pneuma, poignancy, point,
poltergeist, postulate, power, practical consequence, prana,
presence, principle, principle of desire, promptness, property,
psyche, pungency, purification, purport, purpose, purusha, push,
pushfulness, pushiness, pushingness, quality, quick, quickness,
quid, quiddity, quintessence, raciness, range of meaning,
readiness, real meaning, reference, referent, refinement, relation,
relevance, relish, resoluteness, resolution, resolve, revenant,
robustness, rollicksomeness, rompishness, ruach, run away with,
sand, sap, sauce, savor, scope, seance, seat of life, secret heart,
secret places, self, semantic cluster, semantic field, sense,
sentiments, seriousness, shade, shadow, shanghai, shape,
shrouded spirit, significance, signification, significatum,
signifie, sincerity, sitting, skittishness, skyjack, smoke, snap,
snatch, somatotype, sort, soul, span of meaning, spark of life,
sparkle, specter, spectral ghost, spice, spirit away, spirit up,
spiritedness, spiritism, spirits, spiritual being, spiritualism,
spiritus, spook, sportiveness, sprightliness, sprite, spunk,
spunkiness, stamina, stamp, starch, state of mind, sthula sharira,
stout heart, streak, strength, stripe, strong drink,
structural meaning, stuff, substance, suchness, sum,
sum and substance, supernatural being, symbolic meaning, system,
take away, talent, team spirit, temper, temperament, tendency,
tenor, the nitty-gritty, the self, theophany, thin air, thought,
timbre, tipple, tone, totality of associations, toughness,
transferred meaning, transport, true being, true grit,
true inwardness, type, umbra, unadorned meaning, undertone,
unsubstantiality, up-and-comingness, urge, valor, value, vapor,
vehemence, vein, venturesomeness, venturousness, verve, vigor, vim,
vis vitae, vis vitalis, viscera, vision, vital energy, vital flame,
vital fluid, vital force, vital principle, vital spark,
vital spirit, vitality, vitals, vivaciousness, vivacity, vividness,
walking dead man, wandering soul, warmth, warmth of feeling, way,
will, wraith, zeal, zealousness, zest, zestfulness, zing, zip,

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    In 1879 expert opinion was unanimous in rejecting Sautuola's timid suggestion that the ceiling paintings in his family's cave were made by the same prehistoric hunters whose stone and bone artifacts he had been collecting from the cave floor
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