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h    : ['etʃ]
H \H\ ([=a]ch),
the eighth letter of the English alphabet, is classed among
the consonants, and is formed with the mouth organs in the
same position as that of the succeeding vowel. It is used
with certain consonants to form digraphs representing sounds
which are not found in the alphabet, as sh, th, [th], as in
shall, thing, [th]ine (for zh see [sect]274); also, to modify
the sounds of some other letters, as when placed after c and
p, with the former of which it represents a compound sound
like that of tsh, as in charm (written also tch as in catch),
with the latter, the sound of f, as in phase, phantom. In
some words, mostly derived or introduced from foreign
languages, h following c and g indicates that those
consonants have the hard sound before e, i, and y, as in
chemistry, chiromancy, chyle, Ghent, Ghibelline, etc.; in
some others, ch has the sound of sh, as in chicane. See Guide
to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 153, 179, 181-3, 237-8.
[1913 Webster]

Note: The name (aitch) is from the French ache; its form is
from the Latin, and this from the Greek H, which was
used as the sign of the spiritus asper (rough
breathing) before it came to represent the long vowel,
Gr. [eta]. The Greek H is from Ph[oe]nician, the
ultimate origin probably being Egyptian. Etymologically
H is most closely related to c; as in E. horn, L.
cornu, Gr. ke`ras; E. hele, v. t., conceal; E. hide, L.
cutis, Gr. ky`tos; E. hundred, L. centum, Gr.
"e-kat-on, Skr. [.c]ata.
[1913 Webster]

{H piece} (Mining), the part of a plunger pump which contains
the valve.
[1913 Webster]

H \H\ (h[aum]). (Mus.)
The seventh degree in the diatonic scale, being used by the
Germans for B natural. See {B}.
[1913 Webster]

Ion \I"on\ ([imac]"[o^]n), n. [Gr. 'io`n, neut, of 'iw`n, p. pr.
of 'ie`nai to go.]
1. (Elec. Chem.) an atom or goup of atoms (radical) carrying
an electrical charge. It is contrasted with neutral atoms
or molecules, and free radicals. Certain compounds, such
as sodium chloride, are composed of complementary ions in
the solid (crystalline) as well as in solution. Others,
notably acids such as hydrogen chloride, may occur as
neutral molecules in the pure liquid or gas forms, and
ionize almost completely in dilute aqueous solutions. In
solutions (as in water) ions are frequently bound
non-covalently with the molecules of solvent, and in that
case are said to be solvated. According to the
electrolytic dissociation theory, the molecules of
electrolytes are divided into ions by water and other
solvents. An ion consists of one or more atoms and carries
one unit charges of electricity, 3.4 x 10^{-10}
electrostatic units, or a multiple of this. Those which
are positively electrified (hydrogen and the metals) are
called {cations}; negative ions (hydroxyl and acidic atoms
or groups) are called {anions}.

Note: Thus, hydrochloric acid ({HCl}) dissociates, in aqueous
solution, into the hydrogen ion, {H}, and the chlorine
ion, {Cl-}; ferric nitrate, {Fe(NO3)3}, yields the
ferric ion, {Fe}, and nitrate ions, {NO3-}, {NO3-},
{NO3-}. When a solution containing ions is made part of
an electric circuit, the cations move toward the
cathode, the anions toward the anode. This movement is
called migration, and the velocity of it differs for
different kinds of ions. If the electromotive force is
sufficient, electrolysis ensues: cations give up their
charge at the cathode and separate in metallic form or
decompose water, forming hydrogen and alkali;
similarly, at the anode the element of the anion
separates, or the metal of the anode is dissolved, or
decomposition occurs. Aluminum and chlorine are
elements prepared predominantly by such electrolysis,
and depends on dissolving compounds in a solvent where
the element forms ions. Electrolysis is also used in
refining other metals, such as copper and silver. Cf.
{Anion}, {Cation}.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

2. One of the small electrified particles into which the
molecules of a gas are broken up under the action of the
electric current, of ultraviolet and certain other rays,
and of high temperatures. To the properties and behavior
of ions the phenomena of the electric discharge through
rarefied gases and many other important effects are
ascribed. At low pressures the negative ions appear to be
electrons; the positive ions, atoms minus an electron. At
ordinary pressures each ion seems to include also a number
of attached molecules. Ions may be formed in a gas in
various ways.
[Webster 1913 Suppl.]

n 1: a nonmetallic univalent element that is normally a
colorless and odorless highly flammable diatomic gas; the
simplest and lightest and most abundant element in the
universe [synonym: {hydrogen}, {H}, {atomic number 1}]
2: a unit of inductance in which an induced electromotive force
of one volt is produced when the current is varied at the
rate of one ampere per second [synonym: {henry}, {H}]
3: the constant of proportionality relating the energy of a
photon to its frequency; approximately 6.626 x 10^-34 joule-
second [synonym: {Planck's constant}, {h}]
4: the 8th letter of the Roman alphabet [synonym: {H}, {h}]
5: (thermodynamics) a thermodynamic quantity equal to the
internal energy of a system plus the product of its volume
and pressure; "enthalpy is the amount of energy in a system
capable of doing mechanical work" [synonym: {heat content},
{total heat}, {enthalpy}, {H}]

1. A simple {markup} language intended for quick conversion of
existing text to {hypertext}.

2. A method of marking common words to call attention to the
fact that they are being used in a nonstandard, ironic, or
humorous way. Originated in the fannish catchphrase "Bheer
is the One True Ghod!" from decades ago. H-infix marking of
"Ghod" and other words spread into the 1960s counterculture
via underground comix, and into early hackerdom either from
the counterculture or from SF fandom (the three overlapped
heavily at the time). More recently, the h infix has become
an expected feature of benchmark names (Dhrystone, Rhealstone,
etc.); this follows on from the original Whetstone (the name
of a laboratory) but may have been influenced by the
fannish/counterculture h infix.

[{Jargon File}]


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