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C    : [s'i]
Gastropoda \Gas*trop"o*da\, n. pl., [NL., fr. Gr. ?, ?, stomach
-poda.] (Zool.)
One of the classes of Mollusca, of great extent. It includes
most of the marine spiral shells, and the land and
fresh-water snails. They generally creep by means of a flat,
muscular disk, or foot, on the ventral side of the body. The
head usually bears one or two pairs of tentacles. See
{Mollusca}. [Written also {Gasteropoda}.]
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Note: The Gastropoda are divided into three subclasses; viz.:
({a}) The Streptoneura or Dioecia, including the
Pectinibranchiata, Rhipidoglossa, Docoglossa, and
Heteropoda. ({b}) The Euthyneura, including the
Pulmonata and Opisthobranchia. ({c}) The Amphineura,
including the Polyplacophora and Aplacophora.
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Language \Lan"guage\, n. [OE. langage, F. langage, fr. L. lingua
the tongue, hence speech, language; akin to E. tongue. See
{Tongue}, cf. {Lingual}.]
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1. Any means of conveying or communicating ideas;
specifically, human speech; the expression of ideas by the
voice; sounds, expressive of thought, articulated by the
organs of the throat and mouth.
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Note: Language consists in the oral utterance of sounds which
usage has made the representatives of ideas. When two
or more persons customarily annex the same sounds to
the same ideas, the expression of these sounds by one
person communicates his ideas to another. This is the
primary sense of language, the use of which is to
communicate the thoughts of one person to another
through the organs of hearing. Articulate sounds are
represented to the eye by letters, marks, or
characters, which form words.
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2. The expression of ideas by writing, or any other
instrumentality.
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3. The forms of speech, or the methods of expressing ideas,
peculiar to a particular nation.
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4. The characteristic mode of arranging words, peculiar to an
individual speaker or writer; manner of expression; style.
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Others for language all their care express. --Pope.
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5. The inarticulate sounds by which animals inferior to man
express their feelings or their wants.
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6. The suggestion, by objects, actions, or conditions, of
ideas associated therewith; as, the language of flowers.
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There was . . . language in their very gesture.
--Shak.
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7. The vocabulary and phraseology belonging to an art or
department of knowledge; as, medical language; the
language of chemistry or theology.
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8. A race, as distinguished by its speech. [R.]
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All the people, the nations, and the languages, fell
down and worshiped the golden image. --Dan. iii. 7.
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9. Any system of symbols created for the purpose of
communicating ideas, emotions, commands, etc., between
sentient agents.
[PJC]

10. Specifically: (computers) Any set of symbols and the
rules for combining them which are used to specify to a
computer the actions that it is to take; also referred to
as a {computer lanugage} or {programming language}; as,
JAVA is a new and flexible high-level language which has
achieved popularity very rapidly.
[PJC]

Note: Computer languages are classed a low-level if each
instruction specifies only one operation of the
computer, or high-level if each instruction may specify
a complex combination of operations. {Machine language}
and {assembly language} are low-level computer
languages. {FORTRAN}, {COBOL} and {C} are high-level
computer languages. Other computer languages, such as
JAVA, allow even more complex combinations of low-level
operations to be performed with a single command. Many
programs, such as databases, are supplied with special
languages adapted to manipulate the objects of concern
for that specific program. These are also high-level
languages.
[PJC]

{Language master}, a teacher of languages. [Obs.]

Syn: Speech; tongue; idiom; dialect; phraseology; diction;
discourse; conversation; talk.

Usage: {Language}, {Speech}, {Tongue}, {Idiom}, {Dialect}.
Language is generic, denoting, in its most extended
use, any mode of conveying ideas; speech is the
language of articulate sounds; tongue is the
Anglo-Saxon term for language, esp. for spoken
language; as, the English tongue. Idiom denotes the
forms of construction peculiar to a particular
language; dialects are varieties of expression which
spring up in different parts of a country among people
speaking substantially the same language.
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Legate \Leg"ate\ (l[e^]g"[asl]t), n. [OE. legat, L. legatus, fr.
legare to send with a commission or charge, to depute, fr.
lex, legis, law: cf. F. l['e]gat, It. legato. See {Legal}.]
1. An ambassador or envoy.
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2. An ecclesiastic representing the pope and invested with
the authority of the Holy See.
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Note: Legates are of three kinds: ({a}) Legates a latere, now
always cardinals. They are called ordinary or
extraordinary legates, the former governing provinces,
and the latter class being sent to foreign countries on
extraordinary occasions. ({b}) Legati missi, who
correspond to the ambassadors of temporal governments.
({c}) Legati nati, or legates by virtue of their
office, as the archbishops of Salzburg and Prague.
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3. (Rom. Hist.)
(a) An official assistant given to a general or to the
governor of a province.
(b) Under the emperors, a governor sent to a province.
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Libration \Li*bra"tion\ (l[-i]*br[=a]"sh[u^]n), n. [L. libratio:
cf. F. libration.]
1. The act or state of librating. --Jer. Taylor.
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2. (Astron.) A real or apparent libratory motion, like that
of a balance before coming to rest.
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{Libration of the moon}, any one of those small periodical
changes in the position of the moon's surface relatively
to the earth, in consequence of which narrow portions at
opposite limbs become visible or invisible alternately. It
receives different names according to the manner in which
it takes place; as: {(a)} Libration in longitude, that
which, depending on the place of the moon in its elliptic
orbit, causes small portions near the eastern and western
borders alternately to appear and disappear each month.
({b}) Libration in latitude, that which depends on the
varying position of the moon's axis in respect to the
spectator, causing the alternate appearance and
disappearance of either pole. ({c}) Diurnal or parallactic
libration, that which brings into view on the upper limb,
at rising and setting, some parts not in the average
visible hemisphere.
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Monkey \Mon"key\, n.; pl. {Monkeys}. [Cf. OIt. monicchio, It.
monnino, dim. of monna an ape, also dame, mistress, contr.
fr. madonna. See {Madonna}.]
1. (Zool.)
(a) In the most general sense, any one of the Quadrumana,
including apes, baboons, and lemurs.
(b) Any species of Quadrumana, except the lemurs.
(c) Any one of numerous species of Quadrumana (esp. such
as have a long tail and prehensile feet) exclusive of
apes and baboons.
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Note: The monkeys are often divided into three groups: ({a})
{Catarrhines}, or {Simidae}. These have an oblong head,
with the oblique flat nostrils near together. Some have
no tail, as the apes. All these are natives of the Old
World. ({b}) {Platyrhines}, or {Cebidae}. These have a
round head, with a broad nasal septum, so that the
nostrils are wide apart and directed downward. The tail
is often prehensile, and the thumb is short and not
opposable. These are natives of the New World. ({c})
{Strepsorhines}, or {Lemuroidea}. These have a pointed
head with curved nostrils. They are natives of Southern
Asia, Africa, and Madagascar.
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2. A term of disapproval, ridicule, or contempt, as for a
mischievous child.
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This is the monkey's own giving out; she is
persuaded I will marry her. --Shak.
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3. The weight or hammer of a pile driver, that is, a very
heavy mass of iron, which, being raised on high, falls on
the head of the pile, and drives it into the earth; the
falling weight of a drop hammer used in forging.
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4. A small trading vessel of the sixteenth century.
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{Monkey boat}. (Naut.)
(a) A small boat used in docks.
(b) A half-decked boat used on the River Thames.

{Monkey block} (Naut.), a small single block strapped with a
swivel. --R. H. Dana, Jr.

{Monkey flower} (Bot.), a plant of the genus {Mimulus}; -- so
called from the appearance of its gaping corolla. --Gray.

{Monkey gaff} (Naut.), a light gaff attached to the topmast
for the better display of signals at sea.

{Monkey jacket}, a short closely fitting jacket, worn by
sailors.

{Monkey rail} (Naut.), a second and lighter rail raised about
six inches above the quarter rail of a ship.

{Monkey shine}, monkey trick. [Slang, U.S.]

{Monkey trick}, a mischievous prank. --Saintsbury.

{Monkey wheel}. See {Gin block}, under 5th {Gin}.
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Motion \Mo"tion\, n. [F., fr. L. motio, fr. movere, motum, to
move. See {Move}.]
1. The act, process, or state of changing place or position;
movement; the passing of a body from one place or position
to another, whether voluntary or involuntary; -- opposed
to {rest}.
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Speaking or mute, all comeliness and grace
attends thee, and each word, each motion, forms.
--Milton.
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2. Power of, or capacity for, motion.
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Devoid of sense and motion. --Milton.
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3. Direction of movement; course; tendency; as, the motion of
the planets is from west to east.
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In our proper motion we ascend. --Milton.
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4. Change in the relative position of the parts of anything;
action of a machine with respect to the relative movement
of its parts.
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This is the great wheel to which the clock owes its
motion. --Dr. H. More.
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5. Movement of the mind, desires, or passions; mental act, or
impulse to any action; internal activity.
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Let a good man obey every good motion rising in his
heart, knowing that every such motion proceeds from
God. --South.
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6. A proposal or suggestion looking to action or progress;
esp., a formal proposal made in a deliberative assembly;
as, a motion to adjourn.
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Yes, I agree, and thank you for your motion. --Shak.
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7. (Law) An application made to a court or judge orally in
open court. Its object is to obtain an order or rule
directing some act to be done in favor of the applicant.
--Mozley & W.
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8. (Mus.) Change of pitch in successive sounds, whether in
the same part or in groups of parts.
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The independent motions of different parts sounding
together constitute counterpoint. --Grove.
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Note: Conjunct motion is that by single degrees of the scale.
Contrary motion is that when parts move in opposite
directions. Disjunct motion is motion by skips. Oblique
motion is that when one part is stationary while
another moves. Similar or direct motion is that when
parts move in the same direction.
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9. A puppet show or puppet. [Obs.]
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What motion's this? the model of Nineveh? --Beau. &
Fl.
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Note: Motion, in mechanics, may be simple or compound.

{Simple motions} are: ({a}) straight translation, which, if
of indefinite duration, must be reciprocating. ({b})
Simple rotation, which may be either continuous or
reciprocating, and when reciprocating is called
oscillating. ({c}) Helical, which, if of indefinite
duration, must be reciprocating.

{Compound motion} consists of combinations of any of the
simple motions.
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{Center of motion}, {Harmonic motion}, etc. See under
{Center}, {Harmonic}, etc.

{Motion block} (Steam Engine), a crosshead.

{Perpetual motion} (Mech.), an incessant motion conceived to
be attainable by a machine supplying its own motive forces
independently of any action from without. According to the
law of conservation of energy, such perpetual motion is
impossible, and no device has yet been built that is
capable of perpetual motion.
[1913 Webster PJC]

Syn: See {Movement}.
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Symbol \Sym"bol\ (s[i^]m"b[o^]l), n. [L. symbolus, symbolum, Gr.
sy`mbolon a sign by which one knows or infers a thing, from
symba`llein to throw or put together, to compare; sy`n with
ba`llein to throw: cf. F. symbole. Cf. {Emblem}, {Parable}.]
1. A visible sign or representation of an idea; anything
which suggests an idea or quality, or another thing, as by
resemblance or by convention; an emblem; a representation;
a type; a figure; as, the lion is the symbol of courage;
the lamb is the symbol of meekness or patience.
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A symbol is a sign included in the idea which it
represents, e. g., an actual part chosen to
represent the whole, or a lower form or species used
as the representative of a higher in the same kind.
--Coleridge.
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2. (Math.) Any character used to represent a quantity, an
operation, a relation, or an abbreviation.
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Note: In crystallography, the symbol of a plane is the
numerical expression which defines its position
relatively to the assumed axes.
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3. (Theol.) An abstract or compendium of faith or doctrine; a
creed, or a summary of the articles of religion.
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4. [Gr. ? contributions.] That which is thrown into a common
fund; hence, an appointed or accustomed duty. [Obs.]
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They do their work in the days of peace . . . and
come to pay their symbol in a war or in a plague.
--Jer. Taylor.
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5. Share; allotment. [Obs.]
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The persons who are to be judged . . . shall all
appear to receive their symbol. --Jer. Taylor.
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6. (Chem.) An abbreviation standing for the name of an
element and consisting of the initial letter of the Latin
or New Latin name, or sometimes of the initial letter with
a following one; as, {C} for carbon, {Na} for sodium
(Natrium), {Fe} for iron (Ferrum), {Sn} for tin (Stannum),
{Sb} for antimony (Stibium), etc. See the list of names
and symbols under {Element}.
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Note: In pure and organic chemistry there are symbols not
only for the elements, but also for their grouping in
formulas, radicals, or residues, as evidenced by their
composition, reactions, synthesis, etc. See the diagram
of {Benzene nucleus}, under {Benzene}.
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Syn: Emblem; figure; type. See {Emblem}.
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higher programming language \higher programming language\ n.
(Computers)
A computer programming language with an instruction set
allowing one instruction to code for several assembly
language instructions.

Note: The aggregation of several assembly-language
instructions into one instruction allows much greater
efficiency in writing computer programs. Most programs
are now written in some higher programming language,
such as {BASIC}, {FORTRAN}, {COBOL}, {C}, {C},
{PROLOG}, or {JAVA}.
[PJC]


C \C\ (s[=e])
1. C is the third letter of the English alphabet. It is from
the Latin letter C, which in old Latin represented the
sounds of k, and g (in go); its original value being the
latter. In Anglo-Saxon words, or Old English before the
Norman Conquest, it always has the sound of k. The Latin C
was the same letter as the Greek [Gamma], [gamma], and
came from the Greek alphabet. The Greeks got it from the
Ph[oe]nicians. The English name of C is from the Latin
name ce, and was derived, probably, through the French.
Etymologically C is related to g, h, k, q, s (and other
sibilant sounds). Examples of these relations are in L.
acutus, E. acute, ague; E. acrid, eager, vinegar; L.
cornu, E. horn; E. cat, kitten; E. coy, quiet; L. circare,
OF. cerchier, E. search.
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Note: See Guide to Pronunciation, [sect][sect] 221-228.
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2. (Mus.)
(a) The keynote of the normal or "natural" scale, which
has neither flats nor sharps in its signature; also,
the third note of the relative minor scale of the
same.
(b) C after the clef is the mark of common time, in which
each measure is a semibreve (four fourths or
crotchets); for alla breve time it is written ?.
(c) The "C clef," a modification of the letter C, placed
on any line of the staff, shows that line to be middle
C.
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3. As a numeral, C stands for Latin centum or 100, CC for
200, etc.
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{C spring}, a spring in the form of the letter C.
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c
adj 1: being ten more than ninety [synonym: {hundred}, {one
hundred}, {100}, {c}]
n 1: a degree on the centigrade scale of temperature [synonym:
{degree centigrade}, {degree Celsius}, {C}]
2: the speed at which light travels in a vacuum; the constancy
and universality of the speed of light is recognized by
defining it to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second [synonym:
{speed of light}, {light speed}, {c}]
3: a vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits)
and vegetables; prevents scurvy [synonym: {vitamin C}, {C},
{ascorbic acid}]
4: one of the four nucleotides used in building DNA; all four
nucleotides have a common phosphate group and a sugar
(ribose) [synonym: {deoxycytidine monophosphate}, {C}]
5: a base found in DNA and RNA and derived from pyrimidine;
pairs with guanine [synonym: {cytosine}, {C}]
6: an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in
three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and
diamond; occurs in all organic compounds [synonym: {carbon}, {C},
{atomic number 6}]
7: ten 10s [synonym: {hundred}, {100}, {C}, {century}, {one C}]
8: a unit of electrical charge equal to the amount of charge
transferred by a current of 1 ampere in 1 second [synonym:
{coulomb}, {C}, {ampere-second}]
9: a general-purpose programing language closely associated with
the UNIX operating system
10: (music) the keynote of the scale of C major
11: the 3rd letter of the Roman alphabet [synonym: {C}, {c}]
12: street names for cocaine [synonym: {coke}, {blow}, {nose candy},
{snow}, {C}]

A programming language designed by {Dennis Ritchie}
at {AT&T} {Bell Labs} ca. 1972 for systems programming on the
{PDP-11} and immediately used to reimplement {Unix}.

It was called "C" because many features derived from an
earlier compiler named "{B}". In fact, C was briefly named
"NB". B was itself strongly influenced by {BCPL}. Before
{Bjarne Stroustrup} settled the question by designing {C++},
there was a humorous debate over whether C's successor should
be named "D" or "P" (following B and C in "BCPL").

C is terse, low-level and permissive. It has a {macro
preprocessor}, {cpp}.

Partly due to its distribution with {Unix}, C became immensely
popular outside {Bell Labs} after about 1980 and is now the
dominant language in systems and {microcomputer} applications
programming. It has grown popular due to its simplicity,
efficiency, and flexibility. C programs are often easily
adapted to new environments.

C is often described, with a mixture of fondness and disdain,
as "a language that combines all the elegance and power of
{assembly language} with all the readability and
maintainability of assembly language".

Ritchie's original C, known as {K&R C} after Kernighan and
Ritchie's book, has been {standard}ised (and simultaneously
modified) as {ANSI C}.

See also {ACCU}, {ae}, {c68}, {c386}, {C-Interp}, {cxref},
{dbx}, {dsp56k-gcc}, {dsp56165-gcc}, {gc}, {GCT}, {GNU C},
{GNU superoptimiser}, {Harvest C}, {malloc}, {mpl},
{Pthreads}, {ups}.

[{Jargon File}]

(1996-06-01)



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