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UNIX    : [j'unɪks]
UNIX
n 1: trademark for a powerful operating system [synonym: {UNIX},
{UNIX system}, {UNIX operating system}]

/yoo'niks/ (Or "UNIX", in the authors'
words, "A weak pun on Multics") Plural "Unices". An
interactive {time-sharing} {operating system} invented in 1969
by {Ken Thompson} after {Bell Labs} left the {Multics}
project, originally so he could play games on his scavenged
{PDP-7}. {Dennis Ritchie}, the inventor of {C}, is considered
a co-author of the system.

The turning point in Unix's history came when it was
reimplemented almost entirely in C during 1972 - 1974, making
it the first {source-portable} OS. Unix subsequently
underwent mutations and expansions at the hands of many
different people, resulting in a uniquely flexible and
{developer}-friendly environment.

By 1991, Unix had become the most widely used {multi-user}
general-purpose operating system in the world. Many people
consider this the most important victory yet of hackerdom over
industry opposition (but see {Unix weenie} and {Unix
conspiracy} for an opposing point of view).

Unix is now offered by many manufacturers and is the subject
of an international standardisation effort [called?].
Unix-like operating systems include {AIX}, {A/UX}, {BSD},
{Debian}, {FreeBSD}, {GNU}, {HP-UX}, {Linux}, {NetBSD},
{NEXTSTEP}, {OpenBSD}, {OPENSTEP}, {OSF}, {POSIX}, {RISCiX},
{Solaris}, {SunOS}, {System V}, {Ultrix}, {USG Unix}, {Version
7}, {Xenix}.

"Unix" or "UNIX"? Both seem roughly equally popular, perhaps
with a historical bias toward the latter. "UNIX" is a
registered trademark of {The Open Group}, however, since it is
a name and not an acronym, "Unix" has been adopted in this
dictionary except where a larger name includes it in upper
case. Since the OS is {case-sensitive} and exists in many
different versions, it is fitting that its name should reflect
this.

{The UNIX Reference Desk
(http://geek-girl.com/unix.html)}.

{Spanish fire extinguisher
(ftp://linux.mathematik.tu-darmstadt.de/pub/linux/people/okir/unix_flame.gif)}.

[{Jargon File}]

(2001-05-14)

Unix: /yoo´niks/, n. [In the authors' words, “A weak pun on Multics”; very
early on it wasUNICS”] (alsoUNIX”) An
interactive timesharing system invented in 1969 by Ken Thompson after Bell
Labs left the Multics project, originally so he could play games on his
scavenged PDP-7. Dennis Ritchie, the inventor of C, is considered a
co-author of the system. The turning point in Unix's history came when it
was reimplemented almost entirely in C during 19721974, making it
the first source-portable OS. Unix subsequently underwent mutations and
expansions at the hands of many different people, resulting in a uniquely
flexible and developer-friendly environment. By 1991, Unix had become the
most widely used multiuser general-purpose operating system in the world
and since 1996 the variant called Linux has
been at the cutting edge of the open source
movement. Many people consider the success of Unix the most important
victory yet of hackerdom over industry opposition (but see Unix
weenie and Unix conspiracy for an
opposing point of view). See Version 7,
BSD, Linux.Some people are confused over whether this word is appropriately
UNIXorUnix’; both forms are common, and used
interchangeably. Dennis Ritchie says that theUNIXspelling
originally happened in CACM's 1974 paper The UNIX Time-Sharing
System becausewe had a new typesetter and
troff had just been invented and we were intoxicated
by being able to produce small caps.” Later, dmr tried to get the
spelling changed toUnixin a couple of Bell Labs papers, on
the grounds that the word is not acronymic. He failed, and eventually (his
words) “wimped outon the issue. So, while the trademark
today isUNIX’, both capitalizations are grounded in ancient
usage; the Jargon File usesUnixin deference to dmr's
wishes.




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